Glossary


stomach acid stimulation test

listen (STUH-muk A-sid STIM-yoo-LAY-shun ) A test used to measure the amount of gastric acid made by the stomach. The patient receives an injection of the hormone gastrin or insulin. A tube is put through the nose or throat into the stomach and samples are taken from the stomach and sent to a laboratory for testing. Also called gastric acid secretion test and stomach acid test.

stomach acid test

listen (STUH-muk A-sid ) A test used to measure the amount of gastric acid made by the stomach. The patient receives an injection of the hormone gastrin or insulin. A tube is put through the nose or throat into the stomach and samples are taken from the stomach and sent to a laboratory for testing. Also called gastric acid secretion test and stomach acid stimulation test.

stomach cancer

listen (STUH-muk KAN-ser) Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Also called gastric cancer.

stomatitis

listen (STOH-muh-TY-tis) Inflammation or irritation of the mucous membranes in the mouth.

stool

listen (stool) The material in a bowel movement. Stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, mucus, and cells from the lining of the intestines. Also called feces.

stool guaiac test

listen (stool GWY-ak ) A test that checks for occult (hidden) blood in the stool. Small samples of stool are placed on special cards coated with a chemical substance called guaiac and sent to a doctor or laboratory for testing. A testing solution is put on the cards and the guaiac causes the stool sample to change color. If there is blood in the stool, the color changes very quickly. Blood in the stool may be a sign of colorectal cancer or other problems, such as polyps, ulcers, or hemorrhoids. Also called gFOBT, guaiac fecal occult blood test, and guaiac smear test.

stool test

listen (stool test) A test to check for hidden blood in the bowel movement.

straight colorectal anastomosis

listen (strayt KOH-loh-REK-tul uh-NAS-toh-MOH-sis) A surgical procedure in which the colon is attached directly to the remainder of the rectum after most of it has been removed during surgery for rectal cancer. This procedure is different from the J-pouch colorectal anastomosis because a pouch to store stool is not made from the colon before it is attached to the rectum.

streptavidin

listen (strep-TA-vih-din) A small bacterial protein that binds with high affinity to the vitamin biotin. This streptavidin-biotin combination can be used to link molecules such as radioisotopes and monoclonal antibodies together. These bound products have the property of being attracted to, and attaching to, cancer cells, rather than normal cells. The radiolabeled products are more easily removed from the body, thus decreasing their toxicity.

streptozocin

listen (STREP-toh-ZOH-sin) An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents.

stress

listen (stres) In medicine, the bodys response to physical, mental, or emotional pressure. Stress causes chemical changes in the body that can raise blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar levels. It may also lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, anger, or depression. Stress can be caused by normal life activities or by an event, such as trauma or illness. Long-term stress or high levels of stress may lead to mental and physical health problems.

stress protein

listen (... PROH-teen) One of a group of proteins that help protect cells from stresses such as heat, cold, and low amounts of oxygen or glucose (sugar). Stress proteins help other proteins function in normal cells and may be present at high levels in cancer cells. Blocking the activity of a stress protein called HSP90 is being studied in the treatment of cancer. Other stress proteins including HSP70 and gp96 are being studied in vaccines to treat cancer. Also called heat-shock protein and HSP.

stroke

listen (stroke) In medicine, a loss of blood flow to part of the brain, which damages brain tissue. Strokes are caused by blood clots and broken blood vessels in the brain. Symptoms include dizziness, numbness, weakness on one side of the body, and problems with talking, writing, or understanding language. The risk of stroke is increased by high blood pressure, older age, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, atherosclerosis (a buildup of fatty material and plaque inside the coronary arteries), and a family history of stroke. Also called cerebrovascular accident and CVA.

Stromagen

listen (stroh-MUH-jen) A product that is made of special stem cells taken from a patients bone marrow and grown in the laboratory. After a patients bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow. Stromagen has been studied in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during stem cell transplant in patients receiving treatment for cancer. Stromagen is used in cellular therapy. Also called autologous expanded mesenchymal stem cells OTI-010.

stromal cell

listen (STROH-mul sel) A type of cell that makes up certain types of connective tissue (supporting tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs).

stromal tumor

listen (STROH-mal TOO-mer) A tumor that arises in the supporting connective tissue of an organ.

strontium

listen (STRON-shee-um) A metal often used in a radioactive form for imaging tests and in the treatment of cancer.

strontium chloride Sr 89

listen (STRON-shee-um KLOR-ide ) A salt form of the radioactive metal strontium-89 that is absorbed by a part of growing bone. It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bone.

strontium ranelate

listen (STRON-shee-um RAN-eh-layt) A substance that is being studied in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Strontium ranelate helps new bone tissue to grow and decreases bone loss. This lowers the risk of bone fractures.

strontium-89

listen (STRON-shee-um) A radioactive form of the metal strontium that is taken up by a part of growing bone. It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by some types of cancer.

study agent

listen (STUH-dee AY-jent) A medicine, vitamin, mineral, food supplement, or a combination of them that is being tested in a clinical trial.

Sturge-Weber syndrome

listen (sterj-VAY-ber SIN-drome) A rare, congenital disorder that affects the brain, skin, and eyes. Abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the trigeminal nerve in the face and the meninges (covering) of the brain. This abnormal growth causes red or purple skin discoloration (sometimes called a port wine stain), usually on one side of the face, and can also cause seizures, learning disabilities, and glaucoma. Also called SWS.

SU006668

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SU006668 blocks proteins involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called orantinib and SU6668.

SU011248

A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SU011248 stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU11248, sunitinib, sunitinib malate, and Sutent.

SU101

An anticancer drug that works by inhibiting a cancer cell growth factor. Also called leflunomide.

SU11248

A drug used to treat certain types of pancreatic cancer. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in some patients and to treat advanced kidney cancer. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SU11248 stops cancer cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of angiogenesis inhibitor. Also called SU011248, sunitinib, sunitinib malate, and Sutent.

SU5416

A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Also called semaxanib.

SU6668

A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. SU6668 blocks proteins involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent. Also called orantinib and SU006668.

subarachnoid block

listen (sub-uh-RAK-noyd blok) A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called SAB, spinal anesthesia, and spinal block.

subcutaneous

listen (SUB-kyoo-TAY-nee-us) Beneath the skin.

subcutaneous port

listen (SUB-kyoo-TAY-nee-us ...) A tube surgically placed into a blood vessel and attached to a disk placed under the skin. It is used for the administration of intravenous fluids and drugs; it can also be used to obtain blood samples.

subependymal

listen (SUB-eh-PEN-dih-mul) Describes the layer of cells just under the ependyma (the thin membrane that lines the fluid-filled spaces in the brain and spinal cord).

subependymal giant cell astrocytoma

listen (SUB-eh-PEN-dih-mul JY-unt sel AS-troh-sy-TOH-muh) A benign (not cancer), slow-growing tumor that usually forms in the walls of fluid-filled spaces in the brain. The tumors are made up of large, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are common in patients with tuberous sclerosis (an inherited disorder in which benign tumors form in the brain and other parts of the body). Also called SEGA.

suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

listen (SOO-beh-royl-AN-ih-lide hy-drok-SA-mik A-sid) A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called SAHA, vorinostat, and Zolinza.

subglottis

listen (SUB-glah-tis) The lowest part of the larynx; the area from just below the vocal cords down to the top of the trachea.

subjective improvement

listen (sub-JEK-tiv im-PROOV-ment) An improvement that is reported by the patient, but cannot be measured by the healthcare provider (for example, "I feel better").

submucosa

listen (sub-myoo-KOH-suh) The layer of tissue under the mucosa (inner lining of some organs and body cavities that makes mucus).

subserosa

listen (sub-seh-ROH-suh) The layer of tissue under the serosa (outer lining of some organs and body cavities).

subset analysis

listen (... uh-NA-lih-sis) In a clinical study, the evaluation of results for some but not all of the patients who participated. The selected patients have one or more characteristics in common, such as the same stage of disease or the same hormone receptor status.

substance abuse

listen (SUB-stunts uh-BYOOS) The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs or alcohol for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Substance abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

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