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Glossary


phyllodes tumor

listen (fih-LOH-deez TOO-mer) A type of tumor found in breast or prostate tissue. It is often large and bulky and grows quickly. It may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer) and may spread to other parts of the body. Also called CSP and cystosarcoma phyllodes.

physiatrist

listen (fih-ZY-uh-trist) A doctor who specializes in physical medicine (the prevention and treatment of disease or injury with physical methods, such as exercise and machines). Also called physical medicine specialist.

physical dependence

listen (FIH-zih-kul dee-PEN-dents) A condition in which a person takes a drug over time, and unpleasant physical symptoms occur if the drug is suddenly stopped or taken in smaller doses.

physical examination

listen (FIH-zih-kul eg-ZA-mih-NAY-shun) An exam of the body to check for general signs of disease.

physical medicine specialist

listen (FIH-zih-kul MEH-dih-sin SPEH-shuh-list) A doctor who specializes in physical medicine (the prevention and treatment of disease or injury with physical methods, such as exercise and machines). Also called physiatrist.

physical therapist

listen (FIH-zih-kul THAYR-uh-pist) A health professional trained to evaluate and treat people who have conditions or injuries that limit their ability to move and do physical activities. Physical therapists use methods such as exercise, massage, hot packs, ice, and electrical stimulation to help strengthen muscles, relieve pain, and improve movement. They also teach exercises to help prevent injury and loss of motion.

physical therapy

listen (FIH-zih-kul THAYR-uh-pee) The use of exercises and physical activities to help condition muscles and restore strength and movement. For example, physical therapy can be used to restore arm and shoulder movement and build back strength after breast cancer surgery.

physical touch methods

listen (FIH-zih-kul tuch MEH-thuds) A type of therapy in which the therapist moves or manipulates one or more parts of the patients body. It may be used to treat pain, stress, anxiety, and depression, and for general well-being. Examples include chiropractic treatments, physical therapy, and massage therapy. Also called manipulative and body-based practice and manual healing.

physician

listen (fih-ZIH-shun) Medical doctor.

physician assistant

listen (fih-ZIH-shun uh-SIS-tunt) A health professional who is licensed to do certain medical procedures under the guidance of a doctor. A physician assistant may take medical histories, do physical exams, take blood and urine samples, care for wounds, and give injections and immunizations. Also called PA.

Physician Data Query

listen (fih-ZIH-shun DAY-tuh KWEER-ee) Physician Data Query is an online source of cancer information that is developed and maintained by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). It makes current, credible, and accurate cancer information available to health professionals and the public. Physician Data Query contains information about cancer treatment, supportive and palliative care, screening, prevention, genetics, and integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine. This information is updated with the most recent evidence from scientific research. Physician Data Query also contains drug information summaries on many cancer-related drugs; dictionaries of cancer terms, drug terms, and genetics terms; and a directory of professionals who provide genetics services. Most of this information and more specific information about Physician Data Query can be found on the NCI's website at http://www.cancer.gov/publications/pdq. Also called PDQ.

physiologic

listen (FIH-zee-uh-LAH-jik) Having to do with the functions of the body. When used in the phrase "physiologic age," it refers to an age assigned by general health, as opposed to calendar age.

phytic acid

listen (FY-tik A-sid) A substance found in many foods that come from plants, including corn, wheat, rice, and soybeans, and in large amounts in cereals and legumes. It is being studied in the prevention of cancer. Also called inositol hexaphosphate and IP6.

phytochemical

listen (FY-toh-KEH-mih-kul) A substance found in plants. Some phytochemicals may reduce the risk of cancer.

phytoestrogen

listen (FY-toh-ES-truh-jin) An estrogen-like substance found in some plants and plant products. Phytoestrogens may have anticancer effects.

phytohemagglutinin

listen (FY-toh-HEE-muh-GLOO-tih-nin) A substance found in plants that causes red blood cells to clump together and certain white blood cells to divide.

phytol

listen (FY-tol) A chemical substance that comes from plants and is used to make vitamins E and K. Phytol is also found in soaps, beauty care products, and household products.

phytosterol

listen (FY-toh-STEER-ol) A plant-based compound that can compete with dietary cholesterol to be absorbed by the intestines, resulting in lower blood cholesterol levels. Phytosterols may have some effect in cancer prevention. Also called plant sterol.

PI

The person(s) in charge of a clinical trial or a scientific research grant. The PI prepares and carries out the clinical trial protocol (plan for the study) or research paid for by the grant. The PI also analyzes the data and reports the results of the trial or grant research. Also called principal investigator.

PI3 kinase

listen (... KY-nays) A type of enzyme that transmits signals in cells and that helps control cell growth. Some tumors have higher-than-normal levels of PI3 kinase. Also called phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and PI3K.

PI3K

A type of enzyme that transmits signals in cells and that helps control cell growth. Some tumors have higher-than-normal levels of PI3K. Also called phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and PI3 kinase.

PI-88

A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called antiangiogenesis agents.

PICC

listen A device used to draw blood and give treatments, including intravenous fluids, drugs, or blood transfusions. A thin, flexible tube is inserted into a vein in the upper arm and guided (threaded) into a large vein above the right side of the heart called the superior vena cava. A needle is inserted into a port outside the body to draw blood or give fluids. A PICC may stay in place for weeks or months and helps avoid the need for repeated needle sticks. Also called peripherally inserted central catheter.

PID

A condition in which the female reproductive organs are inflamed. It may affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and certain ligaments. PID is usually caused by a bacterial infection. It may cause infertility and an increased risk of an ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in the fallopian tubes). Also called pelvic inflammatory disease.

pigment

listen (PIG-ment) A substance that gives color to tissue. Pigments are responsible for the color of skin, eyes, and hair.

pilocarpine

listen (PY-loh-KAR-peen) A drug used to increase salivation in people who have dry mouth caused by opioids or radiation therapy. Pilocarpine belongs to the family of drugs called alkaloids.

pilocytic

listen (PY-loh-SIH-tik) Made up of cells that look like fibers when viewed under a microscope.

pilot study

listen (PY-lut STUH-dee) The initial study examining a new method or treatment.

PIN

listen Noncancerous growth of cells lining the internal and external surfaces of the prostate gland. Having high-grade PIN may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Also called prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

pineal body

listen (PIH-nee-ul BAH-dee) A tiny organ in the cerebrum that produces melatonin. Also called pineal gland and pineal organ.

pineal germinoma

listen (PIH-nee-ul JER-mih-noh-muh) A type of germ cell tumor that is found in the pineal gland in the brain. Symptoms of pineal germinomas include headaches, changes in vision, nausea, and vomiting.

pineal gland

listen (PIH-nee-ul ...) A tiny organ in the cerebrum that produces melatonin. Also called pineal body and pineal organ.

pineal organ

listen (PIH-nee-ul OR-gun) A tiny organ in the cerebrum that produces melatonin. Also called pineal body and pineal gland.

pineal region tumor

listen (PIH-nee-ul REE-jun TOO-mer) A type of brain tumor that forms in or around the pineal gland (a tiny organ near the center of the brain). Pineal region tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). They include pineocytomas, pineoblastomas, and pineal germinomas. Also called pinealoma.

pinealoma

listen (PIH-nee-uh-LOH-muh) A type of brain tumor that forms in or around the pineal gland (a tiny organ near the center of the brain). Pinealomas may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). They include pineocytomas, pineoblastomas, and pineal germinomas. Also called pineal region tumor.

pineoblastoma

listen (PIH-nee-oh-blas-TOH-muh) A fast growing type of brain tumor that occurs in or around the pineal gland, a tiny organ near the center of the brain.

pineocytoma

listen (PIH-nee-oh-sy-TOH-muh) A slow growing type of brain tumor that occurs in or around the pineal gland, a tiny organ near the center of the brain.

pinkeye

listen (PINK-i) A condition in which the conjunctiva (membranes lining the eyelids and covering the white part of the eye) become inflamed or infected. Also called conjunctivitis.

pioglitazone

listen (py-oh-GLIH-tuh-zone) A drug that is used to treat type 2 diabetes and is being studied in the prevention of head and neck cancer. It may be able to stop leukoplakia (a condition affecting the mouth ) from developing into cancer. It is a type of thiazolidinedione. Also called Actos.

pipe

As it relates to tobacco use, a device that has a mouthpiece at one end of a tube and a small bowl at the other end that is filled with tobacco, which is lit and smoked. The smoke from a pipe is usually not inhaled into the lungs. It contains nicotine and many cancer-causing chemicals that are harmful to both smokers and nonsmokers. Pipe smoking can lead to nicotine addiction and can cause cancers of the mouth, larynx (voice box), esophagus, lung, pancreas, and bladder. It can also cause heart disease, lung disease, and other health problems.

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